German researchers have been working at growing tissue and organs in the laboratory for a long time.
These days, tissue engineering enables us to build artificial tissue, although science has still not been successful with larger organs. Now researchers at the Fraunhofer group of applied research institutes are applying new techniques and materials to come up with artificial blood vessels in their BioRap project that will be able to supply artificial tissue and, perhaps, even complex organs in the future. They exhibited their findings at the Biotechnica Fair, which took place in Hanover, Germany, from October 11 to 13.
There were more than 11 000 people on the waiting list for organ trans- plantation in Germany alone at the beginning of this year, but, on average, hardly half as many transplantations are performed.
The aim of tissue engineering is to create organs in the laboratory for opening up new opportunities in the field. Unfortunately, researchers have still not been able to supply artificial tissue with nutrients because they do not have the necessary vascular system. Five Fraunhofer institutes joined forces in 2009 to come up with biocompatible artificial blood vessels. It seemed impossible to build structures such as capillary vessels that are so small and complex and it was especially the branches and spaces that made life difficult for the researchers. But production engineering came to the rescue because rapid prototyping makes it possible to build workpieces in line with any complex three-dimensional (3D) model. Now scientists at Fraunhofer are working on transferring this technology to the generation of tiny biomaterial structures by combining two different techniques: 3D printing technology established in rapid protoyping and multiphoton polymerisation developed in polymer science.
A 3D inkjet printer can generate 3D solids from a wide variety of materials very quickly. It applies the material in layers of defined shapes and these layers are chemically bonded by ultraviolet radiation. This already creates microstructures, but 3D printing technology is still too imprecise for the fine structures of capillary vessels. This is why the researchers combine this technology with two-photon polymerisation. Brief but intensive laser impulses impact on the material and stimulate the molecules in a very small focus point so that cross-linking of the molecules occurs. The materials becomes an elastic solid, thanks to the properties of the precursor molecules that have been adjusted by the chemists in the project team. In this way, highly precise elastic structures are built according to a 3D building plan.
Dr Günter Tovar is the project manager at the Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, in Stuttgart. He says of the latest work: “The individual techniques are already fuctioning and they are presently working in the test phase; the prototype for the combined system is being built.”
One has to have the right material to manufacture 3D elastic solids. This is the reason why the researchers came up with special inks. The blood vessels have to be flexible and elastic and interact with natural tissue. Therefore, the synthetic tubes are biofunctionalised so that living body cells can dock onto them. The scientists integrate modified biomolecules – such as heparin and anchor peptides – into the inside walls. They also develop inks made of hybrid materials that contain a mixture of synthetic polymers and biomolecules right from the beginning.
The second step is where endothelial cells that form the innermost wall layer of each vessel in the body can attach themselves in the tube systems. Tovar points out that “the lining is important to make sure that the components of the blood do not stick, but are transported onwards”.
“The vessel can only work in the same fashion as its natural model to direct nutrients to their destination if we can establish an entire layer of living cells.”
Opportunities for Medicine
The virtual simulation of the finished workpieces is just as significant for project success as the new materials and production techniques. Researchers have to precisely calculate the design of these structures and the course of the vascular systems to ensure optimum flow speeds while preventing backups. The scientists at Fraunhofer are still at the dawn of this entirely new technology for designing elastic 3D-shaped biomaterials, although this technology offers a whole series of opportunities for further development.
Tovar comments: “We are establishing a basis for applying rapid prototyping to elastic and organic biomaterials. The vascular systems illustrate very dramatically what opportunities this technology has to offer, but that is definitely not the only thing possible.“
One example would be building up completely artificial organs based on a circulation system with blood vessels created in this fashion to supply them with nutrients. They are still not suited for trans- plantations, but the complex of organs can be used as a test system to replace animal experiments. It would be conceivable to treat bypass patients with artificial vessels.
In any event, it will take a long time before we will actually be able to implant organs from the laboratory with their own blood vessels.