http://www.engineeringnews.co.za
  SEARCH
Login
R/€ = 14.07Change: -0.08
R/$ = 10.73Change: -0.07
Au 1271.57 $/ozChange: -15.61
Pt 1416.50 $/ozChange: -7.50
 
 
Note: Search is limited to the most recent 250 articles. Set date range to access earlier articles.
Where? With... When?








Start
 
End
 
 
And must exclude these words...
Close Main Search
Close Main Login
My Profile News Alerts Newsletters Logout Close Main Profile
 
Agriculture   Automotive   Chemicals   Competition Policy   Construction   Defence   Economy   Electricity   Energy   Environment   ICT   Metals   Mining   Science and Technology   Services   Trade   Transport & Logistics   Water  
What's On Press Office Tenders Suppliers Directory Research Jobs Announcements Contact Us
 
 
 
RSS Feed
Article   Comments   Other News   Research   Magazine  
 
 
Jul 27, 2012

Technique developed to see pollutants through cloud formations

Back
Engineering|Africa|CoAL|System|Systems|Africa|North America|South America|UI College|University Of Iowa|Chemical And Biochemical Engineering|Coal-fired Electricity Generating Plants|Systems|Africa|North America|South America|Environmental|Greg Carmichael|Kirk Ayers|Pablo Saide|Patrick Minnis|Scott Spak|Iowa|Environmental Engineering|Remote Sensing
Engineering|Africa|CoAL|System|Systems|Africa|||Systems||Environmental|||
engineering|africa-company|coal|system|systems-company|africa|north-america|south-america|ui-college|university-of-iowa|chemical-and-biochemical-engineering|coal-fired-electricity-generating-plants|systems|africa-natural-feature|north-america-natural-feature|south-america-natural-feature|environmental|greg-carmichael|kirk-ayers|pablo-saide|patrick-minnis|scott-spak|iowa|environmental-engineering|remote-sensing
© Reuse this

Asatellite technique to better estimate con- centrations of pollutants, such as soot, through cloud cover has been developed by University of Iowa (UI) scientists, the university said in a statement.

Clouds block remote-sensing satellites’ ability to detect, and thus calculate, the concentration of pollution nearer to the ground. This includes particles (commonly known as soot), which reduce the air quality and affect the weather as well as the climate.

UI researchers have developed a new technique to evaluate how aerosol pollutants affect clouds, enabling scientists to examine clouds to determine particle concentrations in the atmosphere below.

“Particles in the atmosphere (aerosols) interact with clouds, changing their properties. With this technique, we can use remote sensing observations from satellites to estimate cloud properties in order to correct predictions of particle concentrations. This is possible, owing to a numerical model that describes these aerosol-cloud interactions,” said UI Center for Global and Regional Research (CGRER) environmental engineering doctoral student and researcher Pablo Saide.

The new technique is expected to find imme- diate application across a range of activities. Examples include air-quality forecasting, numerical weather prediction, climate projections, oceanic and anthropogenic emissions estimations, as well as health-effect studies, added UI College of Engineering co-author and assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering Scott Spak.

“Unlike previous methods, this technique can directly improve predictions of near- surface, fine-mode aerosols, such as coal-fired electricity generating plants and wood-fuelled cooking fires, responsible for human health impacts and low-cloud radiative forcing (solar heating),” said UI CGRER codirector, professor of chemical and biochemical engineering and co-author Greg Carmichael.

“This technique is also complementary to previous methods used, enabling the observing system to ‘see’ aerosols even under cloudy conditions,” he explained.

Existing weather satellites observe warm, single-layer clouds, such as the stratocumulus clouds that form off the west coasts of Africa, North America and South America. These clouds are thought to be the main factors contributing to climate cooling.

Researchers calculate the number of droplets in the clouds using the satellite data, which are then compared to a model estimate provided by the UI programme.

As airborne particles interact with clouds, the model estimates of particles are corrected so that the model generates a better correlation with the satellite number of droplets.

Particles interacting with clouds are usually below clouds, thus, in some cases, the model corrections can be attributed to emissions made by humans.

The researchers conducted their study using National Science Foundation (NSF) aircraft measurements to make simultaneous cloud and particle observations, which verified satellite observations and the mathematical formulas used to determine the pollution concentrations in the air.

The three UI researchers agree their new technique of detecting aerosols through clouds to make ground observations is likely to generate increasing interest, as the need to infer ground-air pollution levels and mitigate human hazards increases.

Paper co-authors also include space agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center researcher Patrick Minnis and research support company Science Systems & Applications Incorporate researcher Kirk Ayers.

Edited by: Martin Zhuwakinyu
© Reuse this Comment Guidelines (150 word limit)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other News This Week News
South African State-owned defence industrial group Denel has announced its fourth consecutive year of profits. The group's results for the financial year 2013/2014 were recently announced at its head office in Centurion, south of Pretoria. Revenues grew by 17%, net...
There is little opportunity for JSE-listed infrastructure company Group Five to grow shareholder value in the domestic market, says CEO Mike Upton. He says value can still be found in the private sector, in the renewable and industrial power sector, as well as in...
The National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (Naamsa) has announced the event dates of the 2015 Johannesburg International Motor Show (JIMS). The event will take place from October 14 to October 25, 2015, at the Johannesburg Expo Centre, Nasrec.
More
 
 
Latest News
Updated 43 minutes ago E-tolling Gauteng's highways has failed and the system falls short of its intentions, the Opposition to Urban Tolling Alliance (Outa) said on Tuesday. "This system is falling far short of its intentions and targets," Outa chairperson Wayne Duvenage told public...
Updated 2 hours 56 minutes ago Fuel cell products provider Ballard Power Systems has appointed Randall MacEwen as president and CEO, effective October 6, replacing John Sheridan, who is retiring after serving as the company’s president and CEO since 2006. Sheridan would continue to serve as an...
Updated 3 hours ago Sub-Saharan Africa’s digital revolution was not set to get under way  – it had already started, Ericsson VP for strategy, marketing and communication Tumi Sekhukhune told delegates at the Southern Africa Telecommunication Network and Application Conference...
More
 
 
Recent Research Reports
Road and Rail 2014: A review of South Africa's road and rail infrastructure (PDF report)
Creamer Media’s Road and Rail 2014 report examines South Africa’s road and rail transport system, with particular focus on the size and state of the country’s road and rail network, the funding and maintenance of these respective networks, and the push to move...
Real Economy Year Book 2014 (PDF Report)
This edition drills down into the performance and outlook for a variety of sectors, including automotive, construction, electricity, transport, steel, water, coal, gold, iron-ore and platinum.
Real Economy Insight: Automotive 2014 (PDF Report)
This four-page brief covers key developments in the automotive industry over the past 12 months, including an overview of South Africa’s automotive market, trade figures, production and the policies influencing the sector.
Real Economy Insight: Construction 2014 (PDF Report)
This five-page brief covers key developments in the construction industry over the past 12 months. It provides an overview of the sector and includes details of employment in the sector, infrastructure and municipal spending, as well as insight into companies’...
Real Economy Insight: Electricity 2014 (PDF Report)
This five-page brief covers key developments in the electricity industry over the past 12 months, including details of State-owned power utility Eskom’s generation activities, funding and tariffs, independent power producers and prospects for the sector.
Real Economy Insight: Road and Rail 2014 (PDF Report)
This six-page brief covers key developments in the road and rail industries over the past 12 months, including details of South Africa’s road and rail network and prospects for both sectors.
 
 
 
 
 
This Week's Magazine
South African State-owned defence industrial group Denel has announced its fourth consecutive year of profits. The group's results for the financial year 2013/2014 were recently announced at its head office in Centurion, south of Pretoria. Revenues grew by 17%, net...
There is little opportunity for JSE-listed infrastructure company Group Five to grow shareholder value in the domestic market, says CEO Mike Upton. He says value can still be found in the private sector, in the renewable and industrial power sector, as well as in...
The National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (Naamsa) has announced the event dates of the 2015 Johannesburg International Motor Show (JIMS). The event will take place from October 14 to October 25, 2015, at the Johannesburg Expo Centre, Nasrec.
UK engineering support services provider Babcock is set to deliver the largest order of global truck manufacturer DAF’s truck tractors in Southern Africa to bulk carrier road-based logistics company Ngululu Bulk Carriers (NBC), with 133 trucks to be delivered in...
Digital radio communications in the African local government space can open up the world, but have many challenges to overcome, notes integration and migration of legacy radio communications infrastructure with digital mobile radio company Emcom Wireless head of...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alert Close
Embed Code Close
content
Research Reports Close
Research Reports are a product of the
Research Channel Africa. Reports can be bought individually or you can gain full access to all reports as part of a Research Channel Africa subscription.
Find Out More Buy Report
 
 
Close
Engineering News
Completely Re-Engineered
Experience it now. Click here
*website to launch in a few weeks