http://www.engineeringnews.co.za
  SEARCH
Login
R/€ = 13.11Change: -0.05
R/$ = 12.07Change: -0.29
Au 1168.61 $/ozChange: -33.82
Pt 1159.50 $/ozChange: -24.50
 
 
Note: Search is limited to the most recent 250 articles. Set date range to access earlier articles.
Where? With... When?








Start
 
End
 
 
And must exclude these words...
Close Main Search
Close Main Login
My Profile News Alerts Newsletters Logout Close Main Profile
 
Agriculture   Automotive   Chemicals   Competition Policy   Construction   Defence   Economy   Electricity   Energy   Environment   ICT   Metals   Mining   Science and Technology   Services   Trade   Transport & Logistics   Water  
What's On Press Office Tenders Suppliers Directory Research Jobs Announcements Letters Contact Us
 
 
 
RSS Feed
Article   Comments   Other News   Research   Magazine  
 
 
Oct 19, 2012

Marine pollutants a threat to the environment

Back
Cape Town|Port|Africa|Design|Diesel|Environment|Fire|Marine|Motors|Pipe|Safety|Smit Amandla Marine|System|Systems|Training|Water|Africa|South Africa|Equipment|Gear Systems|Heavy Oil|Hydraulic Oil|Lube Oil|Machinery|Maintenance|Marine Diesel Oil|Mineral-based Oil Products|Motors|Oil|Product|Products|Refined Petroleum Product|Services|Systems|Environmental|Ian Carrasco|Motors|Water|Motors|Pipe|1997 Protocols|Diesel
Port|Africa|Design|Diesel|Environment|Fire|Marine|Motors|Pipe|Safety|System|Systems|Training|Water|Africa||Equipment|Maintenance|Motors|Products|Services|Systems|Environmental|Motors|Water|Motors|Pipe|
cape-town|port|africa-company|design|diesel-company|environment|fire|marine|motors-company|pipe-company|safety|smit-amandla-marine|system|systems-company|training|water-company|africa|south-africa|equipment|gear-systems|heavy-oil|hydraulic-oil|lube-oil|machinery|maintenance|marine-diesel-oil|mineral-based-oil-products|motors-industry-term|oil|product|products|refined-petroleum-product|services|systems|environmental|ian-carrasco|motors-person|water|motors|pipe|1997-protocols|diesel
© Reuse this



Marine pollution is a global challenge and mineral-based product spills, such as heavy oil, marine diesel oil, lube oil and hydraulic oil, not only pose a fire and safety risk on board vessels, but may cause immense environmental damage if allowed to escape into the sea, says marine services provider Smit Amandla Marine salvage master Captain Ian Carrasco.

“Hydraulic equipment, such as that used in steering gear systems, mooring winches, deck cranes and controllable pitch propellers to name a few, which uses hydraulic oil as a noncompressible transport medium within a closed circuit to operate the equipment under pressure, is used extensively on vessels.”

Provided the hydraulic oil remains in a closed system on board with no leaks from pipe work, flanges and pump motors, the risk of pollution is mitigated, Carrasco notes.

He stresses that it is imperative for engineers on ships to ensure that mineral-based oil products are contained in a closed environment to prevent unwanted pollution.

Hydraulic oil, if not stored in dedicated tanks on board ships, is stored in 210 ℓ capacity drums, which need to be securely fastened and carefully transported to and from the quayside to prevent spillage.

He explains that hydraulic oil is a refined petroleum product and, if allowed to escape into the sea, will enter the water column and harm sea and bird life, as it does not break down easily.

However, environment-friendly hydraulic oils which are less harmful to the marine environment, are available at a higher cost.

Carrasco, who is an experienced Master Mariner, reveals that shipboard pollution in the maritime industry is regulated by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol 1973, as modified by the 1978 and 1997 protocols), to which South Africa is a signatory.

“The maritime industry is well regulated for all types of pollution and heavy fines are levied against those ships that do not comply with the regulations set out by the Marpol Annexes 1 to 6.”

Carrasco notes there are many substandard ship operators that manage their vessels on a limited budget.

Worldwide, State port control authorities, such as the South African Maritime Safety Authority, are required to inspect and detain ships that do not comply with international standards and prevent them from departing port until the deficiencies are corrected.

“Not all ships can be inspected and there are those that slip through the net. In these instances, the likelihood of an incident occurring is significantly increased if the ship is old and there has been insufficient maintenance, for example on machinery, which plays a considerable part in incidents occuring,” he emphasises.

Carrasco states that all accidents are preventable, but notes that human error plays a significant role in the many instances of ships running aground worldwide each year. “The maritime industry does its best to regulate and maintain high safety standards.”

High standards are set for crew competence under the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers and the design and strength of ships, which should be built according to internationally recognised Classification Society standards, such as Lloyds Class, Bureau Veritas and the American Bureau of Standards.

He points out that, of the many ships that run aground worldwide each year, some do so on South Africa’s coastline, which is notorious for huge seas and ‘freak’ waves that have been reported in adverse winter weather conditions, emanating from the Deep South.

A recent example of a ship running aground is the incident on May 12, in which long-line fishing vessel Eihatsu Maru ran aground at Clifton’s First Beach, in Cape Town. It was refloated by Smit Amandla Marine on May 18, successfully avoiding marine pollution from onboard pollutants by ensuring a fast response time and a fuel removal operation prior to the refloating, says Carrasco.

“The longer a vessel remains aground without assistance from specialised salvage companies, the bigger the threat of pollution to the marine environment.

“The chances of refloating a grounded ship successfully diminish with each passing hour, owing to environmental forces, such as sea swell, currents, tidal effects and reduced water depth, impacting on the structural integrity of the ship.”

Carrasco points out that when a vessel runs aground, the first priority is to get the non- essential crew safely ashore. The next consideration, depending on the circumstances, is to remove the bunker oil as there is a risk that the fuel tanks could become breached on refloating, especially if the sea bed is rock or coral. On the many groundings that have occurred, engine spaces have become flooded. The polluted water often contains heavy oil, diesel oil and hydraulic oils that escape from fuel tanks, machinery and equipment to the surface of the water.

“This oily water mixture has to be pumped or skimmed off the surface by the salvage team and pumped to reception facilities. The oily mixture should be contained on board to prevent the consequences of any unwanted spillage to the marine environment.

“To remove oil from the oily water interface is a labour intensive and costly process,” Carrasco stresses, referring to the Seli 1 vessel that ran aground off the Milnerton coastline, in Cape Town, in 2009.

“The wreck was not removed and authori- ties are still trying to clean up the escaping oil on the beaches as the vessel is breaking up through wave action,” he adds.

The cost of removing a stranded vessel, together with all the marine pollutants and cargo, from the coastline by cutting it up is prohibitive, owing to the extent of the specialised work, the equipment required and the high risks involved, Carrasco emphasises.

Edited by: Chanel de Bruyn
© Reuse this Comment Guidelines (150 word limit)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Transport & Logistics News
A Boeing 737 of low cost carrier Kulula, part of the Comair group
Updated 3 hours ago Comair CEO Erik Venter has expressed concern about South Africa’s draft 2015 to 2020 Airlift Strategy, which covers commercial aviation. (Comair is the country’s largest private-sector airline group.) This draft follows on from the 2006 to 2011 Airlift Strategy,...
Updated 4 hours ago Transnet National Ports Authority’s (TNPA’s) alleged “anticompetitive” interpretation of the National Ports Act was put before the Ports Regulator of South Africa during a hearing, in Durban, on March 5 and 6, after complainant Siyakhupuka Investment Holdings argued...
More
 
 
Latest News
Updated 2 hours 50 minutes ago The Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa (Sessa) on Friday called on the Department of Energy (DoE) to follow its three-step “rescue plan” aimed at resolving the uncertainty surrounding the administration of the solar rebate programme. Sessa said its...
Updated 3 hours ago South Africa's National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) said on Friday it would oppose any attempt by cash-strapped power utility Eskom to sell assets, especially its finance company which helps provide home loans to employees. Eskom CE Tshediso Matona told the Reuters...
More
 
 
Recent Research Reports
Construction 2015: A review of South Africa’s construction sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Construction 2015 Report examines South Africa’s construction industry over the past 12 months. The report provides insight into the business environment; the key participants in the sector; local construction demand; geographic diversification;...
Liquid Fuels 2014 - A review of South Africa's Liquid Fuels sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Liquid Fuels 2014 Report examines these issues, focusing on the business environment, oil and gas exploration, the country’s feedstock supplies, the development of South Africa’s biofuels industry, fuel pricing, competition in the sector, the...
Water 2014: A review of South Africa's water sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Water 2014 report considers the aforementioned issues, not only in the South African context, but also in the African and global context, and examines the issues of water and sanitation, water quality and the demand for water, among others.
Defence 2014: A review of South Africa's defence industry (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Defence 2014 report examines South Africa’s defence industry, with particular focus on the key participants in the sector, the innovations that have come out of the sector, local and export demand, South Africa’s controversial multibillion-rand...
Road and Rail 2014: A review of South Africa's road and rail infrastructure (PDF report)
Creamer Media’s Road and Rail 2014 report examines South Africa’s road and rail transport system, with particular focus on the size and state of the country’s road and rail network, the funding and maintenance of these respective networks, and the push to move road...
Real Economy Year Book 2014 (PDF Report)
This edition drills down into the performance and outlook for a variety of sectors, including automotive, construction, electricity, transport, steel, water, coal, gold, iron-ore and platinum.
 
 
 
 
 
This Week's Magazine
The World Bank, the European Union, the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the government of Sweden have agreed to provide Zimbabwe and Zambia with $294-million for the repair of structural deformations on the Kariba dam wall and avert the possible collapse of the...
Global Electricity Initiative executive chairperson Philippe Joubert
Executive chairperson of the Global Electricity Initiative (GEI) Philippe Joubert says energy utilities globally, together with the business community more generally, have come to terms with the science of climate change, particularly as extreme weather events begin...
JAMES TEMPLETON Emira’s operational performance is the best it has been in a long time
JSE-listed Emira Property Fund reported distribution growth per participatory interest (PI) of 9% for the six months ended December 31, 2014.
JOAN MACNAUGHTON Many countries were also struggling to balance the energy trilemma of energy security, energy equity and environmental sustainability
Sub-Saharan Africa is still faced with the challenge of providing citizens access to electricity and an additional $450-billion will need to be invested to ensure that people in urban areas have access to electricity by 2040.
ABE THELA Cuban engineering skills are not recognised by the Engineering Council of South Africa
Consulting Engineers South Africa (Cesa) last month said it was dismayed that the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) was seconding 35 Cuban engineers on a two-year contract to share their expertise with South African engineers in the water sector.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alert Close
Embed Code Close
content
Research Reports Close
Research Reports are a product of the
Research Channel Africa. Reports can be bought individually or you can gain full access to all reports as part of a Research Channel Africa subscription.
Find Out More Buy Report
 
 
Close
Engineering News
Completely Re-Engineered
Experience it now. Click here
*website to launch in a few weeks
Subscribe Now for $96 Close
Subscribe Now for $96