http://www.engineeringnews.co.za
  SEARCH
Login
R/€ = 14.94Change: -0.02
R/$ = 13.25Change: 0.06
Au 1140.85 $/ozChange: 7.10
Pt 1012.00 $/ozChange: 0.00
 
 
Note: Search is limited to the most recent 250 articles. Set date range to access earlier articles.
Where? With... When?








Start
 
End
 
 
And must exclude these words...
Close Main Search
Close Main Login
My Profile News Alerts Newsletters Logout Close Main Profile
 
Agriculture   Automotive   Chemicals   Competition Policy   Construction   Defence   Economy   Electricity   Energy   Environment   ICT   Metals   Mining   Science and Technology   Services   Trade   Transport & Logistics   Water  
What's On Press Office Tenders Suppliers Directory Research Jobs Announcements Letters Contact Us
 
 
 
RSS Feed
Article   Comments   Other News   Research   Magazine  
 
 
May 27, 2011

Israel showing the water-technology way

Back
Agriculture|Engineering|Environment|Export|Flow|Hydrocarbons|Industrial|PROJECT|Projects|Renewable Energy|Renewable-Energy|System|Systems|Waste|Water|Kenya|Energy|Flow|Systems|Environmental|Power|Waste
Agriculture|Engineering|Environment|Export|Flow|Hydrocarbons|Industrial|PROJECT|Projects|Renewable Energy|Renewable-Energy|System|Systems|Waste|Water|Kenya|Energy|Flow|Systems|Environmental|Power|Waste
agriculture|engineering|environment|export|flow-company|hydrocarbons|industrial|project|projects|renewable-energy|renewable-energy-company|system|systems-company|waste-company|water|kenya|energy|flow-industry-term|systems|environmental|power|waste
© Reuse this



Israel, a water-constrained country, is leaving no stone unturned in conserving this precious resource through a range of measures, including recycling, efficient use and desalination.

The country currently recycles about 75% of its municipal effluent for irrigation, mostly in the arid south, which receives a measly 100 mm/y of rainfall. An ambitious target of 100% recycling by 2014 has been set and, by that date, all agriculture in Israel will be based on retreated water, according to water utility Mekorot professional instructor Gal Shoham.

He told journalists from across the globe during a recent tour of Mekorot’s Shafdan wastewater treatment plant, in the Dan region, that, while the recycled water is used for irrigation, it is of potable quality and contributes to preserving the environment by curbing ecological damage caused by untreated wastewater.

Serving about two-million people in the densely populated Dan region, which incorporates the city of Tel Aviv, the Shafdan plant – Mekorot’s largest and one of the most advanced in the Middle East – treats 130-million cubic metres of wastewater a year.

Secondary effluent from the plant is used to infiltrate fields in Rishon Letzion and Yavne. From these fields, the effluent is recharged into aquifers, where it undergoes natural physical, biological and chemical processes that improve its quality. Water from the aquifers is pumped to the Negev desert, about 90 km away, where it is used for irrigation by citrus, carrots, potato, lettuce, wheat and flower growers.

Besides the Shafdan plant, Mekorot operates five other wastewater treatment plants with a daily flow of 460 000 m3 and a yearly capacity of about 180-million cubic metres.

Mekorot accounts for about 40% of the wastewater treated in Israel, or about 200-million cubic metres a year, and for the reuse of 60% of the country’s treated wastewater for agriculture.

The touring journalists – from all continents of the world – were also able to visit Ayala Water & Ecology, which has developed natural biological systems for the purification and enhancement of water, soil and air. The wastewater Ayala treats includes effluent from dairy farms, poultry farms and abattoirs, as well as other agricultural enterprises.

The company’s natural biological systems are also capable of treating domestic and industrial effluent containing oils, fats, hydrocarbons, emulsions and detergents, besides other things.

The company operates a facility at the Hiriya landfill site, in the Dan region, that treats landfill leachate as well as fresh garbage and contaminated drainage.

Ayala’s cutting-edge technology has been recognised internationally and its founder, Eli Cohen, is Israel’s representative on the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s environmental specialist team in the phytotechnology applications field.

Ayala’s Hiriya site is a stone’s throw away from Arrow Ecology, which has developed technology that separates biodegradable organics like food and paper out of solid municipal waste before it is used to produce biogas that is fed into combined heat and power plants. The Hiriya site generates 1 MW of its electricity needs.

Solids like plastics are sold for recycling, while sludge from anaerobic reactors is used for agricultural purposes.

CEO Yair Zadik said the company’s 150 t/d plant treated 5% of all the garbage generated in Israel and that its technology could reduce landfilling by up to 80%.

Arrow Ecology built the first plant outside Israel, in Sydney, Australia, in 2008 and is to soon build further plants in Italy, China and India.

On the efficient water use front, Israel’s Netafim is perhaps the most well known enter- prise, with its drip irrigation systems now manufactured or distributed in several regions of the world.

The drip systems ensure that water is released directly onto a plant, tremendously cutting back on the amount of water used by irrigation methods such as flooding or sprinkling.

Netafim chief sustainability officer Naty Barak said during a tour of the company’s plant at the Hatzerim kibbutz – or gated community – that, thanks to drip irrigation, Israel’s Arava desert, which receives only about 20 mm/y of rainfall, has been turned into a significant agriculture hub, accounting for 65% of the country’s vegetable exports.

Netafim president and CEO Igal Aisenberg said the major success stories of drip irrigation on the African continent were the 11 600 ha Simunye sugar estate, in Swaziland, and the Kitui irrigation scheme, in Kenya’s arid east.

“[At Simunye], a cost analysis of seven different irrigation options was undertaken, and the one that offered the best return was the conversion of the dragline sprinkler system to subsurface drip irrigation.

“A postinvestment audit confirmed a sucrose increase of 15% and a water saving of 22%, compared with the sprinkler system, and this was better than originally expected,” said Aisenberg.

At Kitui, donors led by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation launched a drip irrigation project for 200 poor small-scale vegetable growers, most of whom were women and old people who could not continue irrigating their crops with buckets.

Moving from bucket to drip irrigation increased yields and income by 140% and 200% respectively, and saved water use by around 60%.

Meanwhile, desalination will account for 450-million cubic metres of Israel’s yearly water consumption of 1,4-billion cubic metres – up from about 300-million at present – when the Sorek seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant, currently under con- struction, starts operating in mid-2013.

The150-million-cubic-metre-a-year plant is being built by IDE Technologies, a joint venture between Israeli enterprises ICL Group and Derek Group. IDE built and operates – under a 25-year ‘build, operate and transfer’ (BOT) deal – the 118-million- cubic-metre-a-year Ashkelon plant, which was commissioned in 2005, and the 127-million- cubic-metre Hadera plant, which has been operating since 2009.

The Hadera plant – currently the biggest of its kind in the world – is also a 25-year BOT project.

The Via Maris consortium runs Israeli’s third operational SWRO desalination plant, Palmachim, with a capacity of 45-million cubic metres a year.

IDE Technologies executive VP for special projects Fredi Lokiel told Engineering News that the use of technologies like IDE’s proprietary three-centre technology and cascade boron treatment had helped the company to achieve some of the lowest costs for high-quality desalinated water at both Ashkelon, where a cubic metre costs $0,53, and at Hadera, where the cost is $0,57/m3.

He said that of the 1,4-billion cubic metres of water consumed in Israel each year, about 750-million cubic metres is used for domestic purposes, which meant that the 300-million-odd cubic metres supplied by the Ashkelon, Hadera and Palmachim plants accounts for close to 50% of Israel’s domestic water, as desalinated water is not used for agriculture or industrial purposes.

• Israeli companies and many others from across the globe will showcase their water, environmental and renewable-energy technologies at the Water 2011 conference and exhibition, in Tel Aviv, in November. The last Watec event, held in 2009, was attended by more than 20 000 people from 94 countries.

Zhuwakinyu visited Israeli as a guest of the Israel Export and International Cooperation Institute

.
Edited by: Martin Zhuwakinyu
Creamer Media Senior Deputy Editor
© Reuse this Comment Guidelines (150 word limit)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Water News
It is predicted that, in the next five years, water demand could outstrip supply in South Africa, says Nedbank Sustainability Carbon Specialist Dr Marco Lotz. With increasing population numbers and urbanisation, the debate regarding the amount of investment in water...
Article contains comments
South African water utility Rand Water’s Sedibeng Regional Sanitation Scheme will be undergoing major upgrades to unlock residential and business developments in the Vaal area, as well as parts of the south of Johannesburg, the Gauteng provincial Department of Human...
The Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC) will cut electricity generation by a third to 475 MW at the Kariba hydropower plant due to low water levels, the company said on Thursday, likely worsening daily power cuts. Kariba produces half of Zimbabwe's electricity. The cut back...
Article contains comments
Article contains comments
More
 
 
Latest News
Koeberg unit 2 will be shut down on Monday August 31 for scheduled refuelling and maintenance and is expected to return back to service by mid-December 2015, Eskom said late Monday afternoon. The scheduled shutdown of Koeberg unit 2 is part of Eskom’s overall...
The cause of global warming remains unknown and the information being used to determine its effects is too recent to form a good basis for conclusions. Outlining this at an event organised by the Fossil Fuel Foundation, Cape Peninsular University of Technology energy...
More
 
 
Recent Research Reports
Defence 2015: A review of South Africa's defence sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Coal 2015 report examines South Africa’s coal industry with regards to the business environment, the key participants in the sector, local demand, export sales and coal logistics, projects being undertaken by the large and smaller participants in the...
Real Economy Year Book 2015 (PDF Report)
There are very few beacons of hope on South Africa’s economic horizon. Economic growth is weak, unemployment is rising, electricity supply is insufficient to meet demand and/or spur growth, with poor prospects for many of the commodities mined and exported. However,...
Real Economy Insight: Automotive 2015 (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Real Economy Year Book comprises separate reports under the banner Real Economy Insight and investigates key developments in the automotive, construction, electricity, road and rail, steel, water, gold, iron-ore and platinum sectors.
Real Economy Insight: Water 2015 (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Real Economy Year Book has been divided into individual reports under the banner Real Economy Insight and investigates key developments in the automotive, construction, electricity, road and rail, steel, water, coal, gold, iron-ore and platinum sectors.
Real Economy Insight: Construction 2015 (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Real Economy Year Book has been divided into individual reports under the banner Real Economy Insight and investigates key developments in the automotive, construction, electricity, road and rail, steel, water, coal, gold, iron-ore and platinum sectors.
Real Economy Insight: Electricity 2015 (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Real Economy Year Book has been divided into individual reports under the banner Real Economy Insight and investigates key developments in the automotive, construction, electricity, road and rail, steel, water, coal, gold, iron-ore and platinum sectors.
 
 
 
 
 
This Week's Magazine
Training company The Intelligence Transfer Centre will host the fourth yearly Environmental Crimes Conference at the Indaba Hotel, in Fourways, Johannesburg between September 9 and 10. Confirmed key regulatory bodies that will attend the event include the Department...
The government of Egypt has said it is ready to provide technical assistance to Malawi in the development of the Shire–Zambezi waterway, which is designed to link landlocked Malawi to the Indian Ocean by opening the two rivers for navigation. Egyptian ambassador to...
Kenya is finally set to start building a new multipurpose petroleum pipeline, after securing a $350-loan from a consortium of banks, including South Africa's Rand Merchant Bank. The other banks in the consortium are the Cooperative Bank of Kenya, Citibank's Kenya...
MARAIS VAN HEERDEN The owner/operator should be able to view the overall project design and progress made at any time
Three-dimensional (3D) engineering design models can now be viewed on tablets, which enable stakeholders to view the design without having to buy the design software used to create it, says engineering design firm 3DDraughting executive Marais van Heerden. The...
Ford’s newest offering in a long list of newcomers to the local market in the last two years is the B-Max multi-activity vehicle (MAV). The B-Max will play in the so called B-MAV segment, or the small MAV segment, currently dominated by Toyota’s Avanza, which sells...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alert Close
Embed Code Close
content
Research Reports Close
Research Reports are a product of the
Research Channel Africa. Reports can be bought individually or you can gain full access to all reports as part of a Research Channel Africa subscription.
Find Out More Buy Report
 
 
Close
Engineering News
Completely Re-Engineered
Experience it now. Click here
*website to launch in a few weeks
Subscribe Now for $96 Close
Subscribe Now for $96