http://www.engineeringnews.co.za
  SEARCH
Login
R/€ = 16.31Change: -0.01
R/$ = 14.22Change: 0.03
Au 1292.99 $/ozChange: 1.84
Pt 1079.50 $/ozChange: 3.50
 
 
Note: Search is limited to the most recent 250 articles. Set date range to access earlier articles.
Where? With... When?








Start
 
End
 
 
And must exclude these words...
Close Main Search
Close Main Login
My Profile News Alerts Newsletters Logout Close Main Profile
 
Agriculture   Automotive   Chemicals   Competition Policy   Construction   Defence   Economy   Electricity   Energy   Environment   ICT   Metals   Mining   Science and Technology   Services   Trade   Transport & Logistics   Water  
What's On Press Office Tenders Suppliers Directory Research Jobs Announcements Letters About Us
 
 
 
RSS Feed
Article   Comments   Other News   Research   Magazine  
 
 
Aug 10, 2012

Forceful land acquisitions not in SA’s future if government increases efficiency

Back
Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) Director Benjamin Cousins discussing land reform
 
 
 
Agriculture|Expertise|Natal|Africa|Defence|Efficiency|Engineering|Finance|Paper|SECURITY|System|Technology|Training|Water|Africa|South Africa|Zimbabwe|Institute Of Poverty|Equipment|Food|Food Security|Maintenance|Services|Eastern Cape|Ben Cousins|Gugile Nkwinti|Eastern Cape
Agriculture|Expertise||Africa|Defence|Efficiency|Engineering|Finance|Paper|SECURITY|System|Technology|Training|Water|Africa|||Equipment|Maintenance|Services|||
agriculture|expertise|natal|africa-company|defence|efficiency|engineering|finance|paper|security|system|technology|training|water|africa|south-africa|zimbabwe|institute-of-poverty|equipment|food|food-security|maintenance|services|eastern-cape|ben-cousins|gugile-nkwinti|eastern-cape-province-or-state



While the farming community in South Africa has often expressed concern that land reform will threaten food security, Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation chair in Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies and Institute of Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (Plaas) senior professor Ben Cousins believes there is no basis for such a concern, as little land has been transferred to date.

Further, he notes that, of the land that has been transferred, some has not previously been used to produce food.

“Given that there is massive concentration in the farming sector – the top 25% of farmers produce 75% of South Africa’s produce – government could easily achieve its land reform target without negatively influencing commercial production in any way,” says Cousins.

Government wants to transfer 30% of the estimated 82-million hectares of agricultural land that is owned by white commercial farmers to black farmers by 2014. The transferred land will represent 24.5-million hectares.

To date, government has redistributed nearly 8% of the 30% targeted white-owned land and resolved 90% of urban restitution claims through cash compensation.

Land restitution, unlike redistribution is rights-based. Around 3 000 rural land claims, which government would like to resolve through restoration of land and not cash compensation, are still to be settled.

“In my opinion, the 30% target was purely arbitrary. There is no reason why it shouldn’t be 50% or 70% over the longer term. There is also no reason why the agriculture sector cannot stay productive in the face of land reform,” Cousins stresses.

He adds that land reform has, to date, had a minimal impact on the agriculture sector, but acknowledges that it has created uncertainty among commercial farmers about the future.

“Currently, land is being leased to land reform beneficiaries on short-term leases, instead of being transferred in ownership, which means these farmers do not have long-term security.”

He adds that the African National Congress Youth League’s (ANCYL’s) call on government to amend the country’s Constitution and not compensate farmers for land has caused insecurity and uncertainty.

Forceful Land Acquisitions
Cousins does not believe that forceful land acquisitions will become a reality in South Africa, as government is committed to property rights, despite occasionally ‘making a noise’ about the amount of white-owned land in South Africa.

“I think forceful land acquisition is highly unlikely in South Africa,” he states.

However, he notes that a major contributor to the uncertainty, which he attributes to the emotional responses from farmers and the ANCYL with regard to land reform, is that government does not communicate clearly to the public.

“Government likes to make farmers the scapegoats so they can blame them for the failure of land reform,” says Cousins.

He adds that current public arguments are not about land, but symbolise other issues. “People’s reactions are based on emotion. Not much of the public debate is actually about how to carry out effective land reform.”

Nevertheless, Cousins emphasises that if government keeps moving at its current slow pace, populist politicians might use the situation as an excuse for urging a confiscatory land reform system, similar to that which happened in Zimbabwe.

“I think it is highly unlikely at the moment, but it could become a reality in future; however, I doubt that land occupations similar to the scale on which they have taken place in Zimbabwe, would ever take place in South Africa,” he states.

Land Reform

Government is reviewing its land reform policy and, last year, released a draft Green Paper on Land Reform.

Cousins states that not much clarity has, to date, emerged about the final version of the green paper. “The policy review has been a long-winded process.

“Why the policy process has been so slow is not clear, but it seems like inefficiency by government. Why the land reform process has been so slow is another question,” he states.

The biggest hurdle to land redistribution has been the slow and cumbersome buying of land through the ‘willing buyer, willing seller’ approach. The alternative is proactive land acquisition in areas of both need and opportunity.

“Government has not been an efficient buyer of land, as the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform does not have adequate negotiation skills and is hampered by budget constraints. Government has a small budget for land reform – never more than 1% of its national budget has been allocated for this purpose,” says Cousins.

He stresses that land reform could contribute towards poverty reduction in South Africa. “Even if land reform beneficiaries use the land to produce food only for themselves, it will make a contribution towards alleviating poverty, as food security will be established.”

However, to truly address the roots of rural poverty, agricultural production will have to involve people producing both for the market and for themselves.

Areas where proactive acquisition and concentrated land-buying have worked well include Elliot, in the Eastern Cape, and Besters, in KwaZulu-Natal, where the proportion of farmland transferred quickly reached 20% to 30% of the total in those areas, says Cousins.

He says that, unfortunately, land transfers in these cases, and others, have not been matched by effective support services – a key component of effective land reform.

This is another key issue not adequately addressed in the African National Congress’s land-reform proposals, he points out.

In 2010, Rural Development and Land Reform Minister Gugile Nkwinti reported that 90% of the redistributed farmland was failing to produce food and that government might be forced to repossess the properties if that continued.

Plaas researchers, however, disagree with the Minister’s statement, estimating that only on 50% of redistributed farms there is little production taking place.

The institute admits that although a 50% failure rate is high, it is much less than what government claims.

Plaas states there has been public criticism about what many believe to be the failure of the land reform system.

Government has, therefore, through its recapitalisation and development programme, decided to assist the beneficiaries of redistributed land in keeping it productive.

Weaknesses
Cousins believes the weaknesses of the current proactive land acquisition strategy, or PLAS, fails to provide tenure security and is subject to elite capture, which has also not been dealt with.

He stresses that, for proactive acquisition and concentrated land acquisition to work, three enabling conditions are required. The first is the need to equip government officials with the requisite skills and expertise, not only for canny land buying but also for effective spatial planning and agriculture support services.

The second is a budget large enough to transfer land on a significant scale, as well as support its new owners in establishing productive enterprises. Quadrupling the land reform budget, perhaps at the expense of defence, is imminently affordable, he states.

The third – and crucial – condition is sufficient political will to implement large-scale land redistribution.

To ensure land reform’s sustainability, this would have to be a component of and contribute to a wider agrarian reform strategy, which radically reconfigures the highly skewed agrarian structure inherited from apartheid and creates market opportunities for new emerging farmers.

Tenure Reform
Meanwhile, Cousins points out that government’s tenure reform programme, aimed at securing land rights for farm workers and communal land residents, has largely failed.

Tenure reform aims to strengthen the rights of people whose land tenure is insecure as a result of discriminatory laws and practices in the past. They include farm workers, labour tenants and rural households living on privately-owned land, as well as people living in the former homelands under the authority of traditional chiefs, he explains.

“Little progress has been made with the tenure reform programme; in fact, farm workers are continually evicted despite government laws and policies. Therefore, this programme must be deemed a failure,” he states.

Engineering Sector Involvement
Meanwhile, Cousins points out that the agricultural engineering sector must realise that land redistribution beneficiaries provide a new market with new opportunities.

He adds that the sector can help these beneficiaries by downscaling technology and providing training. More affordable equipment is also needed.

“The shortage of capital to invest in farming hampers successful land reform, which is why bigger machines and larger-scale technology are not necessarily appropriate.

“The available technology is often out of reach for land-reform beneficiaries,” says Cousins.

Training courses about tractor repair and maintenance, equipment repair and maintenance, as well as how to use and repair knapsack sprayers, are desperately needed to assist land reform beneficiaries in cultivating produce and contributing to production in South Africa.

Emerging farmers need to be trained in the use of capital equipment and have expert advice at their disposal when they encounter problems, such as how to deal with diseases that affect crops. They also need advice on marketing, as well as how to enter into cooperative partnerships.

In addition, land reform beneficiaries need support services to gain access to water and irrigation.

“Credit and finance is also an issue and new farmers need to be educated about where the opportunities in the agricultural sector are,” says Cousins.

Edited by: Chanel de Bruyn
Creamer Media Senior Deputy Editor Online

To subscribe email subscriptions@creamermedia.co.za or click here
To advertise email advertising@creamermedia.co.za or click here
 
Comment Guidelines (150 word limit)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Agriculture News
The African Development Bank (AfDB) has approved a $76.2-million (P850-million) loan to help Botswana fund new investment in agri-business, clean energy, services, infrastructure and manufacturing as part of efforts to broaden the country’s narrow economic base and...
One of the key messages to emerge ahead of the review of South Africa’s sovereign credit rating is that the country needs to outline the practical actions it will take to reignite growth, which has more or less petered out in recent years, with few expecting the...
In an attempt to maintain a pro-poor stance on public spending aimed at improving social development, the City of Ekurhuleni will inject R3.5-billion of its 2016 budget for into its community empowerment package, Mintirho Ya Vula Vula. Tabling the budget vote for the...
More
 
 
Latest News
Environmental Affairs Minister Edna Molewa
Cabinet has extended the contract of Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) director-general Nosipho Ngcaba and approved the appointment of Limpho Makotoko as the new DEA COO.     “Under the leadership of Ngcaba, the DEA has consistently received clean and...
Mzwandile Masina
The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has invited companies to participate in a trade and investment mission to Ghana and Nigeria from August 8 to 12.   Companies in the agriculture and agroprocessing sectors, built environment professionals, automotive and...
Cabinet has approved the Industrial Policy Action Plan (Ipap) 2016/17 to 2018/19, which seeks to achieve a higher-impact industrial policy in difficult economic circumstances, including the difficulties faced by the domestic steel industry and the drought which has...
More
 
 
Recent Research Reports
Automotive 2016: A review of South Africa's automotive sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Automotive 2016 Report provides an overview of South Africa’s automotive industry over the past 12 months. The report provides insight into local demand and production, vehicle imports and exports, investment and competitiveness in the sector, as well...
Energy Roundup – April 2016 (PDF Report)
The April 2016 roundup covers activities across South Africa for March 2016 and includes details of a North Gauteng High Court Judge’s dismissal of a court application to postpone the 9.4% electricity tariff increase, which the National Energy Regulator of South...
Electricity 2016: A review of South Africa's electricity sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Electricity 2016 report provides an overview of South Africa’s electricity sector, focusing on State-owned power utility Eskom and independent power producers, electricity planning, transmission, distribution and the theft thereof, besides other issues.
Energy Roundup – March 2016 (PDF Report)
The March 2016 roundup covers activities across South Africa for February 2016 and includes details of the Department of Energy’s plans to announce the preferred bidders for the first tranche of the coal independent power producer procurement programme; the Council...
Steel 2016: A review of South Africa's steel sector (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Steel 2016 Report examines South Africa’s steel industry over the past 12 months. The report provides insight into the global steel market and and particularly into South South Africa’s steel sector, including production and consumption, main...
Construction 2016: A review of South Africa's construction industry (PDF Report)
Creamer Media’s Construction 2016 Report examines South Africa’s construction industry over the past 12 months. The report provides insight into the business environment; key participants; local demand; geographic diversification; corporate activity; black economic...
 
 
 
 
 
This Week's Magazine
The two spent-fuel pools at Eskom’s 1 800 MW Koeberg nuclear power station, in the Western Cape, will be full by 2018, increasing the urgency on the State-owned utility to begin pursuing alternative storage options. Koeberg has, over the past 32 years, accumulated a...
South Africa lacks the skills necessary to implement the government’s plan to build 9.6 GWe of new nuclear energy capacity, warns nuclear-qualified Quality Strategies International CEO David Crawford. “Apart from the concern about the affordability of the programme,...
DOROS HADJIZENONOS The 700-series devices provide network security monitoring, app control, URL filtering, VPN security, antivirus, antispam, antibot, and advanced intrusion prevention and detection functionality
Cybersecurity multinational Check Point has released its latest 700-series cybersecurity systems for small businesses, which draw on its international threat intelligence to provide up-to-date cybersecurity, says Check Point South Africa country manager Doros...
Daimler Trucks and Buses Southern Africa (DTBSA) saw a marked slip in new-vehicle sales in 2015 compared with 2014, with sales dropping from 5 897 units to 5 300 units. The decline came as the South African new truck and bus market declined from 31 558 units in 2014...
Group of 20 (G-20) economies threatened to penalise havens that don’t share information on their banking clients after the leak of the Panama Papers provoked a global uproar over tax evasion. The G-20 will consider “defensive measures” against financial centers and...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alert Close
Embed Code Close
content
Research Reports Close
Research Reports are a product of the
Research Channel Africa. Reports can be bought individually or you can gain full access to all reports as part of a Research Channel Africa subscription.
Find Out More Buy Report
 
 
Close
Engineering News
Completely Re-Engineered
Experience it now. Click here
*website to launch in a few weeks
Subscribe Now for $149 Close
Subscribe Now for $149